Frequently Asked Questions
· What are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)?
Mesenchymal stem cells, or MSCs, are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including: osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells).
· What is Allograft tissue?
An allograft is tissue that is surgically transplanted or injected from one person to another.
· Why are Human Cell & Tissue Products from Cord Tissue more effective?
Cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells have a faster doubling time than adult mesenchymal stem cells (because they are younger and contain a higher concentration of growth factors)
The fitness of adult mesenchymal stem cells declines with age. Thus Cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells will have greater fitness than adult mesenchymal stem cells (as well as a different profile of growth factors)
· How does MSC work?
The majority of the effects of MSCs is from trophic effects (exosomes/microvesicles releasing their 3000 growth factors), not from engraftment
1. Lyftogt J. Subcutaneous prolotherapy for Achilles tendinopathy. Australia’s Musculoskeletal Medicine Journal. 2007; 12:107-109.
2. Lyftogt J. Prolotherapy for recalcitrant lumbago. Australia’s Musculoskeletal Medicine Journal. 2008; 13:18-20.
3. Lyftogt J. Subcutaneous prolotherapy treatment of refractory knee, shoulder and lateral elbow pain. Australia’s Musculoskeletal Medicine Journal. 2007;12:110-112.
4. Mazor M, Lespessailles E, Coursier R, et al. Mesenchymal stem-cell potential in cartilage repair: an update. J Cell Mol Med. 2014 Oct 29. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12378.
5. Diekman BO, Guilak F. Stem cell-based therapies for osteoarthritis: challenges and opportunities. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2013 Jan;25(1):119-26. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0b013e32835aa28d.
6. Davatchi F, Abdollahi BS, Mohyeddin M, Shahram F, Nikbin B. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis. Preliminary report of four patients. Int J Rheum Dis. 2011 May;14(2):211-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01599.x. Epub 2011
7. Mishra A, Tummala P, King A, Lee B, Kraus M, Tse V, Jacobs CR. Buffered platelet-rich plasma enhances mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. 2009 Sep;15(3):431-5.
8. Kasten P, Vogel J, Beyen I, Weiss S, Niemeyer P, Leo A, Lüginbuhl R. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on the in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on distinct calcium phosphate scaffolds: the specific surface area makes a difference. J Biomater Appl. 2008 Sep;23(2):169-88. Epub 2008 Jul 16.
9. Ellingson AM, Shaw MN, Giambini H, An KN. Comparative role of disc degeneration and ligament failure on functional mechanics of the lumbar spine. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2015 Sep 24:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
10. Iorio JA, Jakoi AM, Singla A. Biomechanics of Degenerative SpinalAsian Spine J. 2016 Apr;10(2):377-84. doi: 10.4184/asj.2016.10.2.377. Epub 2016 Apr 15. Review.
11. Butt AM, Gill C, Demerdash A, Watanabe K, Loukas M, Rozzelle CJ, Tubbs RS. A comprehensive review of the sub-axial ligaments of the vertebral column: part I anatomy and function. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015 May 1. [Epub ahead of print]
12. Von Forell GA, Stephens TK, Samartzis D, Bowden AE. Low back pain: A biomechanical rationale based on “patterns” of disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 May 20. [Epub ahead of print]
13. Li Z, Peroglio M, Alini M, Grad S.Potential and Limitations of Intervertebral Disc Endogenous Repair. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 Mar 4.
14. Wang Z, Perez-Terzic CM, Smith J, et al. Efficacy of intervertebral disc regeneration with stem cells – A systematic review and meta-analysis of animal controlled trials. Gene. 2015 Jun 10;564(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.03.022. Epub 2015 Mar 19.
15. Tibiletti M1, Kregar Velikonja N, Urban JP, Fairbank JC. Disc cell therapies: critical issues. Eur Spine J. 2014 Jun;23 Suppl 3:S375-84. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3177-2. Epub 2014 Feb 8.
16. Krock E, Rosenzweig DH, Haglund L. The Inflammatory Milieu of the Degenerate Disc: is Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Intervertebral Disc Repair a Feasible Approach?Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print]
17. Handley C, Goldschlager T, Oehme D, Ghosh P, Jenkin G. Mesenchymal stem cell tracking in the intervertebral disc. World J Stem Cells. 2015 Jan 26;7(1):65-74. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v7.i1.65.
18. Pettine KA, Murphy MB, Suzuki RK, Sand TT. Percutaneous injection of autologous bone marrow concentrate cells significantly reduces lumbar discogenic pain through 12 months. Stem Cells. 2014 Sep 3. doi: 10.1002/stem.1845. [Epub ahead of print]
19. Yim RL, Lee JT, Bow CH, Meij B, Leung V, Cheung KM, Vavken P, Samartzis D. A systematic review of the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells for disc degeneration: insights and future directions for regenerative therapeutics. Stem Cells Dev. 2014 Nov 1;23(21):2553-67. doi: 10.1089/scd.2014.0203. Epub 2014 Sep 11.
20. Hauser RA The Deterioration of Articular Cartilage in Osteoarthritis by Corticosteroid InjectionsJournal of Prolotherapy. 2009;1(2):107-123.
21. Wyles CC, Houdek MT, Wyles SP, et al. Differential cytotoxicity of corticosteroids on human mesenchymal stem cells. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Mar;473(3):1155-64. doi: 10.1007/s11999-014-3925-y. Epub 2014 Sep 4.
22. Seshadri V, Coyle CH, Chu CR. Lidocaine potentiates the chondrotoxicity of methylprednisolone. J Arthr and Related Surg. 2009 Apr; 25(4): 337-347.
23. Hirsch G, Kitas G, Klocke R. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection in osteoarthritis of the knee and hip: factors predicting pain relief–a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Apr;42(5):451-73. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2012.08.005. Epub 2013 Jan 29.
24. Hepper CT, Halvorson JJ, Duncan ST, Gregory AJ, Dunn WR, Spindler KP. The efficacy and duration of intra-articular corticosteroid injection for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of level I studies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009 Oct;17(10):638-46.
25. Sofat N. Kuttapitiya A. Future directions for the management of pain in osteoarthritis. Int J Rheumatol. Apr 2014; 9(2): 197–276.
26. Corticosteroid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee: meta-analysis. BMJ 2004; 328:869.
27. Sweetnam R. Corticosteroid arthropathy and tendon rupture. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1969: 397-398.
28. Ravi B, Escott BG, Wasserstein D, Croxford R, Hollands S, Paterson JM, Kreder HJ, Hawker GA. Intraarticular hip injection and early revision surgery following total hip arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Jan;67(1):162-8. doi: 10.1002/art.38886
29. Siengdee P, Radeerom T, Kuanoon S, Euppayo T, Pradit W, Chomdej S, Ongchai S, Nganvongpanit K. Effects of corticosteroids and their combinations with hyaluronanon on the biochemical properties of porcine cartilage explants. BMC Vet Res. 2015 Dec 4;11(1):298. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0611-6.
30. Massy-Westropp N, Simmonds S, Caragianis S, Potter A. Autologous blood injection and wrist immobilisation for chronic lateral epicondylitis.Adv Orthop. 2012;2012:387829. doi: 10.1155/2012/387829. Epub 2012 Dec 4.
31. Khaliq A, Khan I, Inam M, Saeed M, Khan H, Iqbal MJ. Effectiveness of platelets rich plasma versus corticosteroids in lateral epicondylitis. J Pak Med Assoc. 2015 Nov;65(11 Suppl 3):S100-4.
32. Yadav R, Kothari SY, Borah D. Comparison of Local Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma and Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis of Humerus. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Jul;9(7):RC05-7. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/14087.6213. Epub 2015 Jul 1.
33. Arirachakaran A, Sukthuayat A, Sisayanarane T, Laoratanavoraphong S, Kanchanatawan W, Kongtharvonskul J.Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Orthop Traumatol. 2015 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print]
34. von Wehren L, Blanke F, Todorov A, Heisterbach P, Sailer J, Majewski M. The effect of subacromial injections of autologous conditioned plasma versus cortisonefor the treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears.Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 May 28. [Epub ahead of print
35. Gosens T, Den Oudsten BL, Fievez E, van ‘t Spijker P, Fievez A. Pain and activity levels before and after platelet-rich plasma injection treatment of patellar tendinopathy: a prospective cohort study and the influence of previous treatments.Int Orthop. 2012 Sep;36(9):1941-6. doi: 10.1007/s00264-012-1540-7. Epub 2012 Apr 27
36. Cornwell KG, Landsman A, James KS. Extracellular matrix biomaterials for soft tissue repair. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2009;26(4):507–523.
37. Clark RAF. 1993
38. Velnar T, et al. 2009
39. Journal of Perinatology(2005) 25,341–348. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211290
40. Johnson HL. Observation on the prevention of post operative peritonitis and abdominal adhesions. Surg Gynac Obstet. 1927;XLV:612
41. Kim, T. Kim, W.Y. Kang, B. Hyun, H.Y. Cheon and D. Kim, Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 48, 327 (2010)
42. Ozqenel, B. Samil and M. Ozcan, J. Hand Surgery, 26, 332 (2001).
At Vitality Healthcare (the “Company” or “We”), we respect your privacy and are committed to protecting it through our compliance with this policy.
This policy describes the types of information we may collect from you or that you may provide when you visit this website (our “Website”) and our practices for collecting, using, maintaining, protecting and disclosing that information.
This policy applies to information we collect:
- On this Website.
- In e-mail, text and other electronic messages between you and this Website.
- Through mobile and desktop applications you download from this Website, which provide dedicated non-browser-based interaction between you and this Website.
- When you interact with our advertising and applications on third-party websites and services, if those applications or advertising include links to this policy.
It does not apply to information collected by:
- us offline or through any other means, including on any other website operated by Company or any third party (including our affiliates and subsidiaries); or
- any third party (including our affiliates and subsidiaries), including through any application or content (including advertising) that may link to or be accessible from or on the Website.
Children Under the Age of 13
Our Website is not intended for children under 13 years of age. No one under age 13 may provide any personal information to or on the Website. We do not knowingly collect personal information from children under 13. If you are under 13, do not use or provide any information on this Website or on or through any of its features/register on the Website, make any purchases through the Website, use any of the interactive or public comment features of this Website or provide any information about yourself to us, including your name, address, telephone number, e-mail address or any screen name or user name you may use. If we learn we have collected or received personal information from a child under 13 without verification of parental consent, we will delete that information. If you believe we might have any information from or about a child under 13, please contact us via our contact us link.
Information We Collect About You and How We Collect It
We collect several types of information from and about users of our Website, including information:
- by which you may be personally identified, such as name, postal address, e-mail address, telephone number or ANY OTHER INFORMATION THE WEBSITE COLLECTS THAT IS DEFINED AS PERSONAL OR PERSONALLY IDENTIFIABLE INFORMATION UNDER AN APPLICABLE LAW (“personal information”);
- that is about you but individually does not identify you, and/or
- about your internet connection, the equipment you use to access our Website and usage details.
We collect this information:
- Directly from you when you provide it to us.
- Automatically as you navigate through the site. Information collected automatically may include usage details, IP addresses and information collected through cookies, web beacons and other tracking technologies.
- From third parties, for example, our business partners.
Information You Provide to Us.
The information we collect on or through our Website may include:
- Information that you provide by filling in forms on our Website. This includes information provided at the time of registering to use our Website, subscribing to our service, posting material or requesting further services. We may also ask you for information when you report a problem with our Website.
- Records and copies of your correspondence (including e-mail addresses), if you contact us.
- Your responses to surveys that we might ask you to complete for research purposes.
- Details of transactions you carry out through our Website and of the fulfillment of your orders. You may be required to provide financial information before placing an order through our Website.
- Your search queries on the Website.
You also may provide information to be published or displayed (hereinafter, “posted”) on public areas of the Website, or transmitted to other users of the Website or third parties (collectively, “User Contributions”). Your User Contributions are posted on and transmitted to others at your own risk. Although we limit access to certain pages/you may set certain privacy settings for such information by logging into your account profile, please be aware that no security measures are perfect or impenetrable. Additionally, we cannot control the actions of other users of the Website with whom you may choose to share your User Contributions. Therefore, we cannot and do not guarantee that your User Contributions will not be viewed by unauthorized persons.
Information We Collect Through Automatic Data Collection Technologies.
As you navigate through and interact with our Website, we may use automatic data collection technologies to collect certain information about your equipment, browsing actions and patterns, including:
- Details of your visits to our Website, including traffic data, location data, and other communication data and the resources that you access and use on the Website.
- Information about your computer and internet connection, including your IP address, operating system and browser type.
We also may use these technologies to collect information about your online activities over time and across third-party websites or other online services (behavioral tracking). The information we collect automatically is statistical data and does not include personal information, but we may maintain it or associate it with personal information we collect in other ways or receive from third parties. It helps us to improve our Website and to deliver a better and more personalized service, including by enabling us to:
- Estimate our audience size and usage patterns.
- Store information about your preferences, allowing us to customize our Website according to your individual interests.
- Speed up your searches.
- Recognize you when you return to our Website.
The technologies we use for this automatic data collection may include:
- Flash Cookies. Certain features of our Website may use local stored objects (or Flash cookies) to collect and store information about your preferences and navigation to, from and on our Website. Flash cookies are not managed by the same browser settings as are used for browser cookies.
- Web Beacons. Pages of our the Website may contain small electronic files known as web beacons (also referred to as clear gifs. pixel tags and single-pixel gifs) that permit the Company, for example, to count users who have visited those pages or opened an e-mail and for other related website statistics (for example, recording the popularity of certain website content and verifying system and server integrity).
We do not collect personal Information automatically, but we may tie this information to personal information about you that we collect from other sources or you provide to us.
We do not control these third parties’ tracking technologies or how they may be used. If you have any questions about an advertisement or other targeted content, you should contact the responsible provider directly.
How We Use Your Information
We use information that we collect about you or that you provide to us, including any personal information:
- To present our Website and its contents to you.
- To provide you with information, products or services that you request from us.
- To provide you with information about our services
- To provide you with notices about your account/subscription, including expiration and renewal notices.
- To carry out our obligations and enforce our rights arising from any contracts entered into between you and us, including for billing and collection.
- To notify you about changes to our Website or any products or services we offer or provide though it.
- To allow you to participate in interactive features on our Website.
- In any other way we may describe when you provide the information.
- To fulfill any purpose for which you provide it.
- For any other purpose with your consent.
We may use the information we have collected from you to enable us to display advertisements to our advertisers’ target audiences. Even though we do not disclose your personal information for these purposes without your consent, if you click on or otherwise interact with an advertisement, the advertiser may assume that you meet its target criteria.
Disclosure of Your Information
We may disclose aggregated information about our users, and information that does not identify any individual, without restriction.
- To our subsidiaries and affiliates.
- To contractors, service providers and other third parties we use to support our business and who are bound by contractual obligations to keep personal information confidential and use it only for the purposes for which we disclose it to them.
- To a buyer or other successor in the event of a merger, divestiture, restructuring, reorganization, dissolution or other sale or transfer of some or all of the Company’s assets, whether as a going concern or as part of bankruptcy, liquidation or similar proceeding, in which personal information held by the Company about our Website users is among the assets transferred.
- To third parties to market their products or services to you if you have consented to these disclosures. We contractually require these third parties to keep personal information confidential and use it only for the purposes for which we disclose it to them.
- To fulfill the purpose for which you provide it. For example, if you give us an e-mail address to use the “e-mail a friend” feature of our Website, we will transmit the contents of that e-mail and your e-mail address to the recipients.
- For any other purpose disclosed by us when you provide the information.
- With your consent.
We may also disclose your personal information:
- To comply with any court order, law or legal process, including to respond to any government or regulatory request.
- If we believe disclosure is necessary or appropriate to protect the rights, property, or safety of the Company, our customers or others. This includes exchanging information with other companies and organizations for the purposes of fraud protection and credit risk reduction.
Choices About How We Use and Disclose Your Information
We strive to provide you with choices regarding the personal information you provide to us. We have created mechanisms to provide you with the following control over your information:
- We do not control third parties’ collection or use of your information to serve interest-based advertising. However these third parties may provide you with ways to choose not to have your information collected or used in this way. You can opt out of receiving targeted ads from members of the Network Advertising Initiative (“NAI”) on the NAI’s website.
Accessing and Correcting Your Information
You may send us an e-mail via our contact link to request access to, correct or delete any personal information that you have provided to us. We cannot delete your personal information except by also deleting your user account. We may not accommodate a request to change information if we believe the change would violate any law or legal requirement or cause the information to be incorrect.
Your California Privacy Rights
California Civil Code Section § 1798.83 permits users of our Website that are California residents to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes. To make such a request, please contact us via the Contact Us link.
We have implemented measures designed to secure your personal information from accidental loss and from unauthorized access, use, alteration and disclosure
The safety and security of your information also depends on you. Where we have given you (or where you have chosen) a password for access to certain parts of our Website, you are responsible for keeping this password confidential. We ask you not to share your password with anyone.
Unfortunately, the transmission of information via the internet is not completely secure. Although we do our best to protect your personal information, we cannot guarantee the security of your personal information transmitted to our Website. Any transmission of personal information is at your own risk. We are not responsible for circumvention of any privacy settings or security measures contained on the Website.
Thank You for Visiting the Website.